Examining English as a Medium of Instruction in Vietnam:

Policies and Challenges in Higher Education





EMI, higher education, educational reform, language policies, internationalization


This paper is a literature-based review that critically examines the implementation of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in Vietnam’s higher education (HE). Drawing on policy documents and previous studies in the EMI domain, this paper provides a review of the EMI policies and sheds light on the challenges that could negatively impact the success of the project. The findings indicate a misalignment between the policies and actual implementation, as teachers and students face various challenges in the EMI classrooms. Such challenges include the insufficient supply of qualified teachers, low English proficiency, educational inequality, and irrelevant materials dominated by westernized perspectives. It can be argued that perceptions of teachers, students, and non-educational bodies, such as employers and recruiters, should be considered to ensure the sustainability of EMI implementation. In addition, this article also questions the validity of the monolingual ideology embedded in the EMI policy and discusses implications based on recent development in language education to present an alternative scholarship that transcends the English-only ideology and embraces the multilingual practices in the EMI classrooms.




How to Cite

Anh, T. N. Q. . (2022). Examining English as a Medium of Instruction in Vietnam:: Policies and Challenges in Higher Education . Crossings: A Journal of English Studies, 13(2), 114–130. https://doi.org/10.59817/cjes.v13i2.453