Satyajit Ray’s Ganashatru:

An Intersemiotic Translation of Henrik Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People


  • Anik Biswas Senior Lecturer of English, Metropolitan University, Sylhet



Roman Jakobson categorizes translation work into three dimensions: intralingual, interlingual, and intersemiotic. The third one includes the idea of film adaptation based on a literary text. But there is no appropriate censor of determining how much liberty one screenwriter can enjoy in converting the source text into film. The discussion deserves particular attention if we consider Satyajit Ray’s Ganashatru, a film based on Henrik Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People. In the film, Ray has added a lot of new elements and implemented a lot of changes. In particular, the film ends with a realization by Dr. Ashok Gupta that he is not alone at all while The Enemy of the People ends with the admiration of loneliness. As Ray changes one of the most striking themes of Ibsen’s text, the comparison between the source text and the film becomes significant with regards to translation. The present study throws light on the transformation of Dr. Stockmann to Dr. Ashok Gupta with all his surroundings including culture, time as well as history and an approach on how Ray’s Ganashatru handles the gap between two distinct cultures and timeframes. It also includes an analysis of how Ganashatru with all its changes from the source text has become an excellent intersemiotic translation to the audience of the Indian subcontinent.




How to Cite

Biswas, A. . (2016). Satyajit Ray’s Ganashatru:: An Intersemiotic Translation of Henrik Ibsen’s An Enemy of the People. Crossings: A Journal of English Studies, 7, 46–54.